How a Car Battery Works?

One of the essential elements in your vehicle is electricity. Thanks to this, you can listen to music, turn on the lights in the dark or operate the windshield wiper in heavy rain. The battery fulfills a fundamental function so that all these elements work. Learn a little more about how a battery works and the different types.

What is a vehicle battery?

The battery is a device that accumulates energy based on chemical processes, releasing it later when required; specifically, a car battery keeps chemical energy inside and then releases it as electrical energy. To understand how the car battery works, it is necessary to know it internally. Inside, it is made up of negative and positive polarity cells connected in a bridge between them. In order not to cause electric shocks, these plates are kept separated by insulating materials. All these elements are arranged in an orderly way inside the battery and immersed in an electrolytic liquid. The liquid contains distilled water with sulfuric acid, which are excellent electrical conductors.

How a Car Battery Works?

Knowing what a car battery is for will allow you to identify if it is working correctly or failing. When the components of your vehicle demand power, chemical reactions begin to take place inside the battery. The reality is that it is an internal and continuous process of electron exchange. The latter are the ones that will finally bring electricity to the car through its terminals, fulfilling the following functions:

  1. Send power to the motor. The battery supplies electricity to the car’s starter motor, allowing it to run.
  2. Supply power to electrical components.  It also provides electricity for internal and external lights, electric windows, audio, and video equipment, computer, and the gasoline pump.
  3. Stabilize energy. Your vehicle needs to stabilize or “smooth” the voltage coming out of the alternator to the entire electrical system. In this case, the vehicle battery fulfills the function of an electricity regulator.

It is also essential to know how to charge a battery when it discharges and identify why this may be the caseAs you better understand how your car battery works, you will learn how to prevent electrical damage to your vehicle.

Types of batteries that exist

Technology in the automotive sector has come a long way from lead-acid batteries. Today you can find several increasingly efficient and durable battery models on the market, and now that you know how a battery works, it will be easier to identify which is the most suitable for your vehicle:

Wet cell battery

Wet cell batteries are one of the most common. They use lead plates immersed in sulfuric acid and are not sealed, so they require maintenance that includes the replacement of electrolyte liquid from time to time.

AGM battery

AGM ( Absorbed Glass Material)  batteries receive this name because they have fiberglass separators soaked in electrolytic liquid. Through these, electrical transmission is achieved. They are hermetically sealed batteries which makes them resistant to spills.

Gel battery

They use silica gel as an electrical conductor, replacing liquids. On the other hand, it has similarities to AGM batteries in fiberglass spacers and sealed packaging.

Lithium-ion battery

They are designed to support the generation of electricity in electric vehicles. These use lithium salt to generate an electrochemical reaction between the components of the cathode and the anode. Knowing what a vehicle battery is and how it works will help you identify operating problems, extend the battery’s life, know when it is necessary to change it, and make it easier for you to determine which battery your car uses.

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